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APA Style Guide: Home

Introduction

This is a guide to the most frequently used citation types, based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, 2009. Check this resource for additional citation formats as well as the new online 2012 APA Style Guide to Electronic References.

Please note:

  • In a manuscript, APA requires that references be double-spaced and in a hanging indent format; the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented.
  • Double-check any automatically generated citations for accuracy, such as from RefWorks, EndNote, CINAHL, etc.

New in APA 6th ed.:

  • DOI (digital object identifier) is needed for both electronic and print articles, if available.
  • For journal articles, include issue number only if each issue begins with page 1.
  • Give all authors names, up to and including 7 authors. When there are 8 or more authors, include the first 6 names, then insert 3 ellipses and add the last author's name.
  • For online references, date of retrieval is no longer included for material that is the "version of record" / final version.

Subject Guide

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